Castelos e fortificações do Hospital no Reino de Jerusalém, 1136-1291

  • Denys Pringle Emeritus Professor Cardiff University School of History, Archaeology and Religion Cardiff, Wales, UK, pringlerd@cardiff.ac.uk
Palavras-chave: Hospitalários, Reino de Jerusalém, fortificações, castelos, castelanias

Resumo

Este artigo apresenta um panorama histórico e arqueológico dos castelos e outras fortificações, construídos e ocupados pela Ordem do Hospital de São João no Reino de Jerusalém, entre 1136, quando a ordem adquiriu o castelo de Bayt Jibrīn, e o último cerco mameluco de Acre em 1291, durante o qual defendeu uma parte das muralhas da cidade. Os tópicos discutidos incluem o contributo da ordem para a defesa de vilas e cidades, nas quais ela não era a única, nem mesmo a principal proprietária, bem como a construção e posse de uma série de outras fortificações, desde castelos importantes a estruturas menores, incluindo torres e casas-fortes. Para cada caso, foi dada idêntica atenção aos edifícios e à estrutura administrativa de bailias e castelanias, através dos quais eram geridas e exploradas. À medida que a situação militar se tornava cada vez mais precária, durante o século XIII, a ordem também assumiu e manteve, por curto período, três castelos principais cujos proprietários não podiam defendê-los: Ascalon entre 1241 e 1247, Monte Tabor entre 1255 e 1263 e Arsūf entre 1261 e 1265.

 

 

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Publicado
2023-01-01
Como Citar
Pringle, D. (2023). Castelos e fortificações do Hospital no Reino de Jerusalém, 1136-1291. Medievalista, (33), 153-197. https://doi.org/10.4000/medievalista.6292