A ocupação de Belvoir pelos Hospitalários

Cronologia e fontes escritas

  • Damien Carraz Université de Toulouse 2 – Jean-Jaurès 31000 Toulouse, France, damien.carraz@univ-tlse2.fr
Palavras-chave: Hospital de São João de Jerusalém, castelo, cruzadas, Ayyūbids, Mamluk

Resumo

O que sabemos sobre a ocupação do castelo de Belvoir pelos Hospitalários de São João de Jerusalém? Este artigo procura traçar o estado da documentação escrita disponível, composta por algumas crónicas, árabes e latinas, complementadas por cartas das coleções do Hospital. A história do castelo é colocada em perspectiva com o processo de militarização da Ordem e o seu crescente envolvimento na defesa dos estados latinos do Oriente. Adquirido entre 1165 e 1168, Belvoir rapidamente desempenhou um papel fundamental na defesa da Galileia, tornando-se numa das principais fortalezas do Hospital. Em janeiro de 1189, no entanto, o local foi tomado pelos Ayyūbids. Em 1241, na sequência de um tratado com al-Kâmil, Sultão do Egipto, o castelo e o seu território foram devolvidos aos Hospitalários. No entanto, desconhecem-se as circunstâncias em que os cavaleiros voltaram para um castelo que, entretanto, havia sofrido vários danos. Em 1255, a Ordem reforçou a sua posição absorvendo os bens do mosteiro do Monte Tabor. Contudo, entre 1263 e 1266, as campanhas do Sultão Baybars resultaram no desmantelamento da presença do Hospital no leste da Galileia.

 

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Publicado
2023-01-01
Como Citar
Carraz, D. (2023). A ocupação de Belvoir pelos Hospitalários. Medievalista, (33), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.4000/medievalista.6252