Perseguido por um Unicórnio. Re-Vendo e Des-Codificando a Parábola da Vida Fútil no Romance Barlaão e Josafat (Versão Grega Medieval)

  • Georgios Orfanidis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th.), Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece , georgioso@theo.auth.gr
Palavras-chave: Barlaão, Josafat, Vida fútil, Animais fantásticos, Unicórnio

Resumo

A parábola da Vida Fútil, que constitui uma parte do romance medieval multilíngue Barlaão e Josafat, esconde uma abordagem interpretativa única, em termos de simbolismo, de um símbolo mitológico antigo e intercultural, o do unicórnio. Um primeiro exame do ambiente cultural – textual e iconográfico – da aparência do unicórnio dá a entender que a substância simbólica deste motivo animal terá sido imbuída de noções decorrentes das altas virtudes do sistema ideológico cristão (por exemplo, virgindade, pureza e salvação). No entanto, a narrativa parabólica da Vida Fútil revela outro aspecto. Trata-se do poder interior cruel que leva o homem à escolha errada, impedindo-o de encontrar o caminho espiritual adequado para salvar-se após a sua morte física no mundo de vaidade em que vive temporariamente. Provavelmente, a beleza do unicórnio simboliza agora algo que já não é tão puro. Na verdade, a história da Vida Fútil tornou-se num dos temas iconográficos mais comuns da pintura cristã monumental, incluindo a presença do unicórnio, o que levanta, ao mesmo tempo, preocupações razoáveis e a necessidade de explicações adequadas. Assim, através de uma lista de exemplos relevantes de arte monumental e em miniatura, procuraremos identificar o início dos dois aspectos deste antigo símbolo, com ênfase para a parábola estudada, oferecendo uma nova perspetiva sobre a análise semiótica da Antiguidade durante a Idade Média.

 

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Publicado
2020-12-21
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Orfanidis, G. (2020). Perseguido por um Unicórnio. Re-Vendo e Des-Codificando a Parábola da Vida Fútil no Romance Barlaão e Josafat (Versão Grega Medieval). Medievalista, (29), 183-209. https://doi.org/10.4000/medievalista.3896