A fundação da Ordem de S. João em Jerusalém, ou o Muristan revisitado

  • Dorothee Heinzelmann Monument conservator at LVR-Amt für Denkmalpflege im Rheinland; Lecturer at University of Cologne 51107 Köln, Germany, dorothee.heinzelmann@lvr.de
  • Jürgen Krüger Independent researcher 76228 Karlsruhe, Germany, krueger-kunstgeschichte@t-online.de
Palavras-chave: Jurusalém, Muristan, Hospitalários, Hospital, Conrad Schick

Resumo

 

A ordem de São João foi fundada durante o século XII, a sul da Igreja do Santo Sepulcro em Jerusalém, numa área hoje conhecida como Muristan. O centro do convento da ordem era o outrora famoso hospital, que deu origem a vários albergues e hospitais para peregrinos em toda a Europa. Dado o seu significado histórico, é surpreendente que pouco se saiba sobre este complexo de edifícios. Através dos relatos de peregrinos e dos estatutos da ordem, conhece-se o funcionamento do hospital com alguma segurança. Mas, em consequência de mudanças e de destruições posteriores, só sobreviveram alguns vestígios dessa construção medieval, os quais foram pouco explorados até aos dias de hoje. 

O desenvolvimento do Muristan desde a antiguidade até os tempos modernos é o objecto de um projecto de investigação interdisciplinar em curso. No âmbito desse projecto, os registos de arquivo, as plantas e as fotografias foram reavaliados, enquanto os vestígios arquitectónicos preservados e acessíveis estão a ser analisados segundo os métodos da arqueologia da arquitectura. O presente artigo apresenta alguns dos resultados desse projeto sobre o desenvolvimento medieval do Muristan, sede e hospital da Ordem de São João. 

 

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Publicado
2021-07-01
Como Citar
Heinzelmann, D., & Krüger, J. (2021). A fundação da Ordem de S. João em Jerusalém, ou o Muristan revisitado. Medievalista, (30), 67-90. https://doi.org/10.4000/medievalista.4494