Naturalia medieval: identificação, iconografia e iconologia de objetos naturais no final da idade media

  • Chantal Stein The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Objects Conservation Department 10028, New York, USA, chantal.stein@metmuseum.org
Palavras-chave: Naturalia, Exótica, Animais, Unicórnio, Tesouros

Resumo

A era global nascente no final da Idade Média introduziu objetos exóticos de terras distantes na Europa Ocidental. Os objectos exóticos do mundo natural – naturalia – foram frequentemente modelados em artefactos eclesiásticos e senhoriais e guardados em tesouros. Não raras vezes, esses materiais eram renomeados no novo contexto – como presas de narval, entendidas como chifres de unicórnio – recebendo significados adicionais associados a criaturas míticas alegóricas. Este artigo investiga o movimento, alteração e uso de naturalia renomeada, no contexto da sociedade do final da Idade Média. Foca-se em objectos que mantiveram as respectivas características morfológicas distintivas depois do seu funcionamento, a partir da hipótese de que a identidade do animal, indexada a partir de uma forma reconhecível ou conjunto de características físicas, era importante. Além disso, serão ainda consideradas as conotações simbólicas e propriedades ocultas decorrentes da alegorização da matéria para estudar o papel desempenhado pela ornamentação de naturalia. Este texto explora o discurso entre objetos tangíveis existentes e textos contemporâneos, como bestiários, lapidários e compêndios alquímicos, para examinar como a iconografia da forma do artecfato e a iconologia da ornamentação contribuíram para a significação geral de naturalia.

 

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Publicado
2020-12-21
Como Citar
Stein, C. (2020). Naturalia medieval: identificação, iconografia e iconologia de objetos naturais no final da idade media . Medievalista, (29), 211-241. https://doi.org/10.4000/medievalista.3902